The Greene Ville Treaty
(Information provided by Jim Sayre)
The Greene Ville Treaty Line established the
dividing line between the Indians and whites after General "Mad Anthony" Wayne defeated the Indians at the 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers. The 1795 Greene Ville Treaty
opened up vast areas of the Northwest Territory to white settlement, leading to statehood
for Ohio in 1803.
The treaty line predates establishment of the State of Ohio, but the
present boundaries of the State envelop the historical events leading to the treaty
between the Indians and the whites. The Northwest Territory was afflicted by Indian
warfare until the 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers near Maumee, Ohio.
General Wayne and the Indians agreed to the treaty line in 1795 (surveyed several years
later); the Indians were to occupy the land north and west of it. That line, running
diagonally across Shelby County, opened to whites the 25,000 square miles east and south
of it and between it and the Ohio River. "In return for giving up more than
two-thirds of present Ohio, the natives were promised that the United States would give
each of the twelve tribes $1,666 in trade goods plus $825 in cash once every year"
(Howe, Ohio: Our State).
The line contained white encroachment north of the line for a few years. "Partly
because of Waynes frank and fair methods of treatment, the Indians remained true to
their agreement. Indian warfare was now at a close in Ohio, and in the Northwest peace
reigned until Tecumseh took the warpath again sixteen years later" (Roseboom and
Weisenburger, A History of Ohio).
The meeting at which the Treaty was negotiated was held in Greenville. General Wayne
closed the meeting with the Indians with the following words describing the route of the
treaty line "The general boundary line between the lands of the United States and the
lands of the said Indian tribes shall begin at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River and run
thence up the same to the Portage between the Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum, thence
down the branch to the crossing place above Fort Laurens, thence westwardly to a fork of
that branch of the Great Miami running into the Ohio at or near which stood Loramies Store and where commenced the
portage between the Miami of the Ohio and St. Marys River, which runs into Lake Erie
(Maumee River); thence a westerly course to Fort Recovery, which stands on a branch of the
Wabash; thence southerly in a direct line to the Ohio, so as to intersect that river (in
present Indiana) opposite the mouth of the Kentucke or Cuttawa River."
"A four-mile stretch of road about a mile north of Maplewood designates the
location of the Treaty Line as it enters Shelby County at the eastern line," wrote
the late Miami County historian Leonard Hill. "The place where it crosses Dixie
Highway (25-A) is pointed out by a side road (Harmon Road) to the east about six miles
north of Sidney and one-half mile south of Anna. The Anthony Wayne Parkway Board J. Oliver
Amos, as its president, would be glad to have some organization sponsor markers at
any of the above locations" (Hill, "Tells How Greene Ville Treaty Line Was
Surveyed," Local and Regional History, p. 49, 1970).
Two historical markers commemorate the Greene Ville Treaty Line in our area: a metal
roadside plaque on SR 235 two miles south of Indian Lake High School in Logan County and
an aging, weather-worn metal plaque in the central park area of Ft. Loramie along SR 66.
Another roadside plaque just north of Ft. Loramie describes Gen. Waynes defeat of
the Indians, but does not mention the treaty line.
SR 235 Plaque. This marker, titled Greene Ville Treaty Line, actually says very little
about the treaty line, focusing more on land given to Blue
Jackets daughter in 1813. The marker, in excellent shape and easy to read, was
erected by the Logan County Archaeological and Historical Society, apparently in 1949.
Ft. Loramie Plaque. This two-sided plaque, located in the old canal bed park in the
center of town, commemorates the Miami-Erie Canal on the east side and the Greene Ville Treaty Line on the west side facing away from SR 66.
Text is long, the characters are very small, and the sign is heavily weathered. Erected in
1953 by the Ft. Loramie Business Mens Association and American Legion Post 355, the
marker is part of the Anthony Wayne Parkway series, as is the marker north of town.
follows: "This marker is located on the boundary line which was established at the
end of the Indian Wars to separate the American settlers and the Indians. It was agreed
upon by the United States and the defeated confederated Indian tribes at the treaty of
Greene Ville August 3, 1795. Except for the reserved sections shown on the map, including
Loramies store, and seven other strategic areas in the Northwest Territory, the
lands North and West of the treaty line were left to the Indians. South and East, the
area, now freed from Indian marauding by Gen. Anthony Waynes military success, was
opened to settlement. As a result, the greater part of what is today Ohio experienced a
rapid growth, and in 1803, qualified as the first state to be formed from the old
Northwest. The treaty line was surveyed by Rufus Putnam and Israel Ludlow in
Reprinted from the "Shelby County Democrat", Aug. 9, 1895
The Greene Ville Treaty
"One hundred years ago Saturday of last week the agreement between General Anthony
Wayne on the part of the United States and the chief of the Indians, living in the
Northwest Territory, known as the Greene Ville treaty, was signed at Fort Greene Ville. By that agreement the Indians gave up
all title to the lands south of what is now known as the old boundary line. This line
extended from Fort Laurence (sic), on the Muskingum river, to Fort Loramies, now in this
county. East of the latter place this line runs south of a due west course. At Fort
Loramies the line changed to a north-westerly course and extended to Fort Wayne. Several
pieces of land north of this line around forts and military stations were also ceded by
the Indians to the United States.
The centennial anniversary of this important event was very fittingly celebrated at the
city of Greenville last Saturday. There were about 30,000 people at the celebration and
addresses were made by Governor McKinley, Judges____Hunt of Cincinnati, and W. J.
Gillmore, of Columbus. Among the visitors were some of the descendants of the Indians
whose ancestors participated in the wars that preceded this treaty of peace and were
represented in the treaty. The citizens of Darke county and particularly of Greenville
made this the greatest event in the history of the county. This celebration was more than
a local event. It was national in its importance, because the treaty of Greene Ville
terminated the trouble that had existed with the Indians from almost the beginning of the
Revolutionary war. It extinguished the Indian titles to all the southern portions of Ohio
and Indiana and opened up for settlement thousands of acres of the finest country on the
earth. In its wake came the hardy pioneers who began the labor of civilization that fills
all this part of the country with prosperous cities, towns and farms with millions of
population and almost untold prosperity and wealth. "
'Indian' segment written in December, 1997 by David Lodge
[ Back to Indians Index ]